The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players' League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association, pointing out that franchises came and went and contending that the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.
There is insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of ED. In a systematic review, Lee et al (2009) found insufficient evidence for the use of acupuncture in the treatment of ED. Systematic searches were conducted in 15 electronic databases, with no language restrictions. Hand-searches included conference proceedings and the authors' files. All clinical studies of acupuncture as a treatment for ED were considered for inclusion, and their methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score. Of the 4 studies included, 1 RCT showed beneficial effects of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in terms of response rate, while another RCT found no effects of acupuncture. The remaining 2 studies were uncontrolled clinical trials. Collectively, these data showed that RCTs of acupuncture for ED are feasible but scarce. Most investigations had methodological flaws (., inadequate study design, poor reporting of results, small sample size, and publication without appropriate peer review process). The authors concluded that the evidence is insufficient to suggest that acupuncture is an effective intervention for treating ED. They stated that further research is needed to examine if there are specific benefits of acupuncture for men with ED.
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