In addition to the mentioned side effects several others have been reported. In both males and females acne are frequently reported, as well as hypertrophy of sebaceous glands, increased tallow excretion, hair loss, and alopecia. There is some evidence that anabolic steroid abuse may affect the immune system, leading to a decreased effectiveness of the defense system. Steroid use decreases the glucose tolerance, while there is an increase in insulin resistance. These changes mimic Type II diabetes. These changes seem to be reversible after abstention from the drugs.
Scientists have attempted to test the association between anabolic steroids and aggression by administering high steroid doses or placebo for days or weeks to human volunteers and then asking the people to report on their behavioral symptoms. To date, four such studies have been conducted. In three, high steroid doses did produce greater feelings of irritability and aggression than did placebo, although the effects appear to be highly variable across individuals. In one study, the drugs did not have that effect. One possible explanation, according to the researchers, is that some but not all anabolic steroids increase irritability and aggression. Recent animal studies show an increase in aggression after steroid administration.
Careful steroid selection and reasonable dosing are usually regarded as the most basic and reliable methods for preventing its onset. Many steroid users also frequently take some form of estrogen maintenance medication, which may effectively counter the effects of elevated estrogenicity. Common options include aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. The use of a PCT program at the conclusion of steroid administration (which usually includes several weeks of anti-estrogen use) is also commonly advised, as gynecomastia is sometimes reported in the post-cycle hormone imbalance phase when steroids are not actually being taken.