ml/kg, % bupivacaine (sacro-lumbar block)
1 ml/kg, % bupivacaine (upper abdominal block)
ml/kg,% bupivacaine (mid-thoracic block)
(Doses described by Armitage).
In this age group, epidural analgesia is accompanied by very little change in blood pressure or cardiac output. Continuous caudal catheters have been used intraoperatively for more prolonged surgery. The maximum safe dose range for epidural bupivacaine is - mg/kg/h in neonates and - mg/kg/h in infants. The addition of clonidine (1-2 mcg/kg) to bupivacaine extends its duration of action significantly. Preservative-free Ketamine ( mg/kg) also prolongs the duration of analgesia.