Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for wounds pain relief for excessive scar formation

Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation.

"It's very frightening. There seems to be no safe treatment window" for NSAIDs once you've had a heart attack, said Anne-Marie Schjerning Olsen, a cardiologist at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte who, along with colleagues, reviewed the records of nearly 100,000 patients who had suffered a heart attack between 1997 and 2009. About 44 percent of them received at least one prescription for an NSAID. Among people who didn't take NSAIDs, Olsen says, the cardiovascular risk after a first heart attack declines rapidly during the first year. "After five to 10 years it's almost the same" as the general population, she says. But heart attack survivors who took any NSAID other than low-dose aspirin had a higher risk of having a second heart attack or dying. The overall death risk rose 59 percent one year after the heart attack and 63 percent five years after, she said. Similarly, the risk of coronary death or a second heart attack rose 30 percent one year after the initial heart attack and 41 percent five years after.

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SOURCES: Byron Cryer, MD, spokesman, American Gastroenterological Association; associate professor of medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Nieca Goldberg, MD, spokeswoman for the American Heart Association; chief of women's cardiac care, Lennox Hill Hospital, New York; author, Women Are Not Small Men: Lifesaving Strategies For Preventing And Healing Heart Disease In Women . John Klippel, MD, president and CEO, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. Scott Zashin, clinical assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; author of Arthritis Without Pain . American College of Rheumatology web site. Arthritis Foundation web site. American Heart Association web site. American College of Gastroenterology web site. American Gastroenterological Association web site. American Academy of Family Physicians web site. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology web site.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for wounds pain relief for excessive scar formation

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for wounds pain relief for excessive scar formation

SOURCES: Byron Cryer, MD, spokesman, American Gastroenterological Association; associate professor of medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Nieca Goldberg, MD, spokeswoman for the American Heart Association; chief of women's cardiac care, Lennox Hill Hospital, New York; author, Women Are Not Small Men: Lifesaving Strategies For Preventing And Healing Heart Disease In Women . John Klippel, MD, president and CEO, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. Scott Zashin, clinical assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; author of Arthritis Without Pain . American College of Rheumatology web site. Arthritis Foundation web site. American Heart Association web site. American College of Gastroenterology web site. American Gastroenterological Association web site. American Academy of Family Physicians web site. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology web site.

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