The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players' League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association, pointing out that franchises came and went and contending that the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.
The traditional surgical technique for reduction or elimination of pain from degenerative discs is spinal fusion. It can be done from a posterior approach with screws and rods in the spine and adjacent bone graft or anteriorly with removal of the disc and placement of graph materials in the front. Sometimes surgeons will choose to place implants both in the disc and the screws from a posterior approach. With painful degenerative discs that cannot bear the patient's weight without severe pain, spinal fusion is highly successful in eliminating pain. One of the long-term consequences of disc fusion can be accelerated degeneration of adjacent discs. That is, discs that are degenerating at levels above or below the fusion can be adversely affected, leading to more rapid degeneration of those discs than might have occurred without the adjacent fusion. A newer option used to maintain motion in the degenerative level is cervical disc replacement. As compared to the gold standard of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), the disc replacement technology theoretically decreases the risk of wearing out the disc above and below the treated level by preserving motion.
The adverse effects of AAS/PEDs have been extensively studied… in a medical context. There are athletes out there that are ignorant of the risks associated with AAS/PEDs and simply use as much as they like with no real consideration of the consequences.
The extent of these consequences depends not only on the drug strain, dosage and frequency but also the individual athlete. At this moment in time, there is no clear-cut conclusion about the safety of steroid use in sport. Researchers claim that it’s difficult to see how this might be achieved, even as technology develops over time, due to the complications in research methods, logistics and with the athletes themselves.
So with all the uncertainties surrounding the use of AAS on top of the well-known side effects, why do athletes continue to use these controversial drugs? It all really comes down to one thing – the pressure to succeed.